Things to check out before you go:
- Carry diabetes ID and a letter from your doctor if you are carrying insulin.
- Take twice the quantity of medical supplies you would normally use for your diabetes.
- Flights often cross time zones. If you treat your diabetes with medication or insulin it’s important you check with your diabetes care team. If you need to make any changes to your regime be mindful that hot or cold climate this may affect how your insulin and blood glucose monitor work.
- Make sure you have the free European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) if you are travelling to a European Union member country – it will ensure that you have easy access to healthcare in that country. Obtain your EHIC from www.ehic.org.uk, by calling 0845 605 0707, or fill in a pack at the Post Office. Remember it is still advisable to buy travel insurance, as the card doesn't cover, for example, emergency repatriation, and not all countries give the level of cover of the NHS. Please be aware that if you follow the above procedure, the EHIC card is free. Beware of websites which offer to take care of the application for you: they are likely to charge an unnecessary administration fee.
Packing for your trip:
- Split your diabetes supplies in separate bags.
- If flying make sure you have some diabetes supplies in your hand lugguage in case your bags get lost.
- Pack extra snacks in case of delay with your journey
- Make sure you have all your diabetes medication and equipment packed.
- If you are carrying syringes and insulin on your flight take a letter from your doctor.
Note: In some countries, blood glucose is measured in milligrams per 100 millilitres (expressed as mg %) and not in millimoles per litre (mmol/l). A blood glucose conversion chart is below.
Considerations when flying
Heightened airport security means that it is essential for people with diabetes to plan ahead in order to avoid running into last-minute problems. Airport restrictions are subject to change, so contact your airline directly or call the Department for Transport’s enquiry line on 0300 330 3000 for updates. Or you can go to the travel and transport pages on the Directgov website.
- Current security regulations state that liquid items are only permitted in hand luggage if they are in containers of less than 100ml. There are a few exceptions including essential medicines for the period of your trip, which may be permitted in larger quantities above the current 100ml limit, but will be subject to authentication. Passengers are also permitted to carry essential medical equipment through airport security, though all medication and equipment must be supported by documentation from a relevant qualified medical professional. The Civil Aviation Authority states: "It is essential that diabetic passengers carry adequate equipment (glucose meters, lancets, batteries) and medication in their hand baggage. It is also important that insulin not being used in the flight is not packed in the hold baggage as this may be exposed to temperatures, which could degrade the insulin, in addition there is also the potential that luggage may be lost en-route." It may be useful to print a copy of their FAQs to take with you when you go through security.
- Take a letter from your doctor or clinic which explains that you have diabetes, the medication you use and all the equipment you need to treat diabetes including insulin, insulin delivery devices, needles, blood glucose monitors, glucose tablets or liquid and ketone test strips. It would be helpful if the letter explains the need to carry all medications and equipment with you in your hand luggage and to avoid storing it in your luggage in the hold – problems will arise if luggage goes missing or your medication is spoiled. It would also be useful to take a recent prescription with you.
- Cabin crew may request medication be handed over for storage during the flight. Keep diabetes medication and equipment in the same bag to avoid anything being mislaid or lost.
- Should you have to place insulin in the hold, an airtight container (such as a flask) in the middle of your suitcase is ideal. Alternatively, if an airtight container isn’t available, wrap in bubble wrap, then in a towel and again place in the middle of your suitcase.
- On arrival, examine the insulin for crystals and discard the insulin if any are found. Even if it looks okay, you should test your blood glucose levels more frequently and if they appear abnormal, discard the insulin as it may be damaged and ineffective.
- Before travelling find out where you can get supplies of insulin at your destination, in case of emergency. Contact your insulin manufacturer before the trip to see if your insulin is supplied in the country you are travelling to.
It's also worth checking that it is sold under the same name.
- You can get your prescription sent to your destination by courier.
- If you treat your diabetes with a pump or use a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), it is essential that you contact your airline prior to travel, if possible a few weeks before you fly. Some airlines will require you to notify them of your medical equipment in advance and fill in additional paperwork before you fly. Failure to do this can, in some cases, result in passengers not being allowed to board the aircraft with their pump or CGM.
- You should also speak to your diabetes team – should you need to remove your pump for any reason, they can provide you with any extra equipment such as insulin pens and help plan your doses throughout your journey. People using Medtronic equipment can request an airport card from the manufacturer which gives technical details of the equipment, specifically for the purpose of airport security and cabin crew.
- The Civil Aviation Authority’s Advisory Health Unit recommends that people with diabetes should always contact their airline before travelling to discuss medical devices they intend to take on board aircraft.
Important: Safety caution around insulin pumps and CGM onboard aircraft is due to wireless functionality, which may interfere with aircraft communication and navigation systems. If your pump or CGM cannot function without a wireless signal, then you may need to be prepared to remove your CGM and pump and administer insulin with an insulin pen for the journey. You would also need to test your blood glucose levels manually with a standard blood glucose meter.
Is it safe to go through the x-ray machines or full body scanners?
The advice given by the Civil Aviation Authority regarding pumps and scanners is as follows:
"There are a number of manufacturers of insulin pumps and unfortunately they do not all give the same advice. This varies from assurance that the pumps can safely go through any screening equipment, including X-ray equipment, to advice that the equipment may be affected by even the low-dose X-ray equipment used in some whole body scanners.
"If you use an insulin pump, it is therefore important to contact the manufacturer of the particular pump that you use for advice. It is also sensible to contact your airline and the airports you will travel through, to find out their requirements if the manufacturer advises that your pump cannot go through some screening equipment."
For pumps that are not able to pass through body scanners, the advice is as follows:
- "There are some airports where you will not be allowed to travel if you refuse to be scanned. It is therefore advisable to check with your airline and the airports you will be passing through to see if they do allow an alternative check."
If your pump cannot pass through a scanner and the refusal to pass through will result in refusal to fly.
There is no restriction on the quantity of tablets you take through airport security, but you would still need to take documentation from a medical professional or your prescription for authentication.
What meal should I choose from the menu?
Airlines can provide information on the times of most meals so you can plan your insulin. It is best to order the standard meal, though this may not supply you with enough carbohydrate if you are on insulin or certain diabetes tablets. Cabin crew are usually able to provide fruit, crackers or rolls.
What do I do about snacks?
On long flights, you may require snacks in between meals and at bedtime to prevent blood glucose levels going too low, so try to carry extra starchy carbohydrate foods, such as biscuits, cereal bars or fruit buns, on board the aircraft. For the journey, some people allow their blood glucose to run slightly higher than usual to avoid the inconvenience of hypos. If you are on insulin, monitor your blood glucose levels frequently and be prepared to make changes to your dosage.
What hypo treatment should I take with me?
Glucose tablets, Lucozade and fluids used to treat hypos can be carried on board along with longer-acting carbohydrates such as biscuits. Should you have any problems buying glucose tablets or Lucozade after going through customs, remember the following are effective in treating a hypo: any sugary non-diet drink, sugary sweets, fruit juice. Then to prevent blood glucose from dropping again, follow with longer-acting carbohydrate, such as a sandwich, fruit or biscuits.
Dealing with illness while abroad
You should talk to your doctor for advice before you go, and get information from the tourist office, embassy or high commission of the country you're visiting about getting medical treatment while you're there.
- Check your insurance policy, so you know what your insurers will pay for.
- Give the doctor the generic name – not just the brand name – of your medication.
Most people living with diabetes have encountered difficulties arranging insurance, whether it is life assurance, income protection and family income benefit insurance or travel insurance.
Please note: this section aims to provide you with general information to assist in obtaining insurance. It is not advice nor can it take account of your particular circumstances. For advice, with a view to making decisions, you should consult an independent financial or other professional advisor.
Most travel insurance policies exclude pre-existing medical conditions (medical conditions you had before the policy was taken out) such as diabetes. It is essential when arranging the policy that you fully disclose your medical conditions to the insurance company including diabetes, even if they do not ask. Failure to do so could lead to them rejecting a claim, and then it is too late.
Diabetes UK has arranged specially designed travel insurance for people with diabetes, through Diabetes UK Insurance Services (see the Financial services section of the website for details). Make full disclosures of your medical conditions when taking out your policy – if in doubt tell the insurer at the time of purchasing the policy.
Most car insurance companies no longer penalise people with diabetes by charging higher premiums. If you feel that you are being discriminated against, complain to your insurance company. If you are not satisfied with their response, switch to another company. There are plenty to choose from and you can transfer your no claims bonus to your new company.
When applying for car insurance you must declare all 'material facts'. Diabetes is a material fact, so you need to declare it. The main danger of diabetes and driving is the possibility of having a hypoglycaemic episode (hypo), which could impair your judgement and lead to an accident. Although this is very rare, it can and does happen.
Insurance/assurance for loans and life
Ask your mortgage advisor at the outset if their insurance products are available for people living with diabetes. Allow yourself plenty of time to investigate options, bearing in mind an application for life assurance can take from six to eight weeks to be processed. Apply for cover well in advance of when you need it to be in place. This will avoid a lot of last minute frustration and inconvenience, especially if the insurance is needed for a mortgage.
Private medical health insurance
This type of insurance is very difficult or expensive for people with diabetes to arrange. Often the cost of any treatment relating to diabetes (including complications) will be excluded from the policy, so it's of limited value to people with diabetes. If you are covered by a scheme run by your employer, check the benefits available to you. If you move to another job, check whether you have a 'continuation option' under the scheme. Most private medical insurance schemes offer this option, which allows you to continue with the cover at your own cost.
Hospital cash insurance
This insurance covers funds you may need for certain hospital and outpatient treatment. It can be a very useful way of helping with some of the costs involved with medical treatment. If you are considering such a policy, fully check what treatment it will cover. Diabetes UK Insurance Services has arranged a hospital cash plan insurance that does cover diabetes-related claims (after a qualifying period).
- Diabetes UK Insurance Services: For further information or to get a quote on any type of insurance policy referred to in this section, including travel insurance, call Diabetes UK Insurance Services on 0800 731 7431 or go to the Insurance & financial services section of our website.
- EHIC cards: To apply for a free card go to www.ehic.org.uk, call the EHIC application line on 0845 606 2030 or pick up an application form at a Post Office.
- The Diabetes UK Careline is here to give support and information about diabetes: email@example.com or call 0345 123 2399.
*Calls to 0345 numbers cost no more than calls to geographic (01 and 02) numbers and must be included in inclusive minutes on mobile phones and discount schemes. Calls from landlines are typically charged between 2p and 10p per minute while calls from mobiles typically cost between 10p and 40p per minute. Calls from landlines and mobiles to 0345 numbers are included in free call packages.
Calls may be recorded for quality and training purposes.